বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ে ভর্তিচ্ছু শিক্ষার্থীদের জন্য সাপ্তাহিক পরামর্শ; ইংরেজি পর্ব-২

আপডেট: জুন ১১,২০১৬ | 

সাপ্তাহিক পরামর্শ: ইংরেজি-দ্বিতীয় পর্ব

বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ে ভর্তিচ্ছু শিক্ষার্থী বন্ধুরা,

ঢাবি সহ যে কোন বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ে তোমার চান্স নিশ্চিত করতে 'সাপ্তাহিক পরামর্শ' হলো আমাদের ধারাবাহিক প্রকাশনা। নিয়মিত মুখস্ত item বা vocabulary enrichment  এ সময় দেবার পাশাপাশি Grammatical Points চর্চা করা প্রয়োজন। আজ এর 'দ্বিতীয় পর্ব' প্রকাশিত হল:

Memorizing Item:

                                           One World Substitution-এক কথায় প্রকাশ

Study-related words (বিদ্যা সংক্রান্ত শব্দ): Part-02

Study of water - Hydrology (জল বিজ্ঞান)

Study of weather - Meteorology (আবহাওয়া বিজ্ঞান)

Study of kidneys and their diseases - Nephrology

Study of nerves - Neurology (স্নায়ুবিদ্যা)

Study of cancer - Oncology

Study of egg - Oology

Study of eyes - Ophthalmology (চক্ষু বিজ্ঞান)

Study of mountains - Orology (পর্বত বিজ্ঞান)

Study of bones - Osteology (অস্তিবিজ্ঞান)

Study of rocks - Petrology (শিলাতত্ত্ব)

Study of earthquakes - Seismology (ভূকম্পবিদ্যা)

Study of snakes - Serpentology

Study of mouth & it's diseases - Stomatology

Study of poisons - Toxicology (বিষ)

Study of flags - Vexillogy

Study of animals - Zoology (প্রাণীবিদ্যা)

Study of medicine for children and their diseases - Paediatrics/Pediatrics

Study of broken bones - Orthopaedics

Miscellaneous Important Grammatical Points:

Rule 6: Cause------ Because of and because:

কোন Sentence-এ শুধু ‘কারণ’ বুঝালে  because বসে এবং conjunction এর কাজ করে। কিন্তু ‘কারণে/ জন্য’ বুঝাতে because of ব্যবহৃত হয়। এটি  preposition ‘for’ এর ন্যায় কাজ করে। অর্থাৎ, দুটি Clause এর মাঝে যোগসূত্র স্থাপনের কাজ করে। মনেরাখতে হবে যে,  because of শুধুমাত্র simple sentence কিংবা complex ও compound sentence-এর  principal clause এর ক্ষেত্রেই প্রযোজ্য।

------because+ {subject+verb / there+verb+subject}

------- because of+noun (phrase).

Example:

Jan was worried because it had started to rain. (Subject +verb)

Jan was worried because of the rain. (Noun phrase)

The students arrived late because there was a traffic jam. (Verb +subject)

The students arrived late because of the traffic jam (Noun phrase)

We have to cut down on our driving because there is an oil shortage. (Verb +subject)

We have to cut down on our driving because of the oil shortage. (Noun phrase)

Exercises:

Incorrect: Classes will be canceled tomorrow because a national holiday.

Correct: Classes will be canceled tomorrow because it is a national holiday.

Or,

Classes will be canceled tomorrow because of a national holiday.

Incorrect: She was absent because of her cold was worse.

Correct: She was absent because her cold was worse.

Or,

She was absent because of her cold.

Incorrect: John's family is very happy because his being awarded a scholarship.

Correct: John's family is very because he has been awarded a scholarship.

Or,

John’s family is very happy because of his being awarded a scholarship.

 

Rule 7: Addition-----Besides:

Besides-এর অর্থ in addition to/ছাড়াও। [অপরপক্ষে Beside-এর অর্থ near/পাশে।]

Besides +{noun adjective}+ext. [তবে Subject+verb+beside+noun]

Exercises:

a. Incorrect: To lead a well balanced life, you need to have other interests beside studying.

Incorrect: To lead a well balanced life, you need to have other interests besides studying.

b. Incorrect: Beside a mayor, many city governments employ a city manager.

Correct: Besides a mayor, many city governments employ a city manager.

c. Incorrect: We need two hundred dollars beside this to pay for everything. or

Incorrect: We need two hundred dollars as well as this to pay for everything. or

Incorrect: We need two hundred dollars also this to pay for everything.

Correct: We need two hundred dollars besides this to pay for everything.

 

Rule 8: Anticipatory------- ‘It’:

নিম্নলিখিত ‘It’ clause-গুলো  main clause-এর পূর্বে ব্যবহৃত হয়।

It is believed / It is hypothesized / It is known/ It is said / It is thought / It is true /It is written + that

মনেরাখতে হবে যে, Anticipatory ‘It’ এর পর  that না থাকলে প্রায় সময়ই infinitive বসে।

Example:

It is believed to be popular within the next year. (Infinitive)

Anticipatory It + that + subject + verb + ext. e.g: It is believed +that all mammals experience dreams.

Exercises:

Incorrect: It is hypothesized that the subjects in the control group not to score as well.

Correct: It is hypothesized that the subjects in the control group will not score as well.

Incorrect: It is generally known that she leaving at the end of the year.

Correct: It is generally known that she is leaving at the end of the year.

Incorrect: It is said that a buried treasure near here.

Correct: It is said that a buried treasure was hidden near here.

Rule 9: Replacement-------- Instead of vs. Instead:

“পরিবর্তে” অর্থ বুঝাতে Instead of/ instead ব্যবহৃত হয়। ‘Instead of’ sentence এর মাঝে বসে এবং ‘Instead’ সাধারণত Sentence এর শেষে বসে।

{noun /adjective /adverb+ Instead of+ noun/ adjective/ adverb +ext.

Subject + verb +{noun /adjective /adverb}/+ instead.

Exercises:

Incorrect: Bob’s father wanted him to be an engineer instead a geologist.

Correct: Bob’s father wanted him to be an engineer instead of a geologist.

Or,

Bob’s father wanted him to be an engineer instead.

Incorrect: could I have rice instead potatoes, please?

Correct: Could I have rice instead of potatoes, please?

Or,

Could I have rice instead, please?

Incorrect: Paula's problem is that she likes to go to movies instead of to class

Correct: Paula’s problem is that she likes to go to movies instead of to class.

 

Rule 10: Knowledge and Ability--------Know and Know how:

Sentence-এ Know এর পর verb থাকলে ঐ verb এর পূর্বে how to যুক্ত হয়। কিন্তু know এর পর noun বা  pronoun থাকলে how to যুক্ত হয় না।

Subject +know + {noun /prepositional phrase /pronoun. e.g: I+ know + the man.

Subject+know+how+ infinitive.

I+know+how+to do+it.

Example:

Bill knows how to play tennis well.

Maggie and her sister know how to prepare Chinese food.

Do you know how to get to Jerry’s house from here?

Jason knew the answer to the teacher’s question.

No one knows about Roy’s accepting the new position.

I didn’t know that you were going to France.

Exercises:

Incorrect: If she knew to drive, he would lend her his car.

Correct: If she knew how to drive, he would lend her his car.

Incorrect: I don’t know to use the card catalog in the library.

Correct: I don’t know how to use the card catalog in the library.

Incorrect: Until he came to the United States to study, he didn’t know to cook.

Correct: Until he came to the United States to study, he didn't know how to cook.

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